What Is Glycine
Glycine amino acid, also known as glycine, is a non-essential amino acids, one of the protein amino acids. Due to its compact form, glycine is an integral part of α-helix formation in secondary protein structures and is the most abundant amino acid in the triple helix of collagen. Glycine is a constituent amino acid of the endogenous antioxidant reduced glutathione. When the body is under severe stress, it is often supplemented with exogenous stress, sometimes called semi-essential amino acids. It can usually be produced in sufficient amounts in the body. However, in some cases it may be necessary to obtain more glycine from the diet. Most protein sources contain glycine amino acid, which means that common sources of glycine include meat, eggs, soybeans, lentils, and dairy products.
What Is Glycine Amino Acid Used For
- Glycine amino acid is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spine. Glycine and glutamate are both agonists in the central nervous system.
- Glycine is one of three amino acids that the body uses to make glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.Glutathione levels naturally decline with age, so make sure you’re getting enough glycine as you age may benefit your health.
- Gly is also one of three amino acids that the body uses to make a compound called creatine. Creatine fuels your muscles, improves bone health and brain function.
- Glycine is the most abundant amino acid in collagen. Therefore, it is important to get enough glycine to support the body’s production of collagen.
- It may promote sleep and improve sleep quality through its calming effects on the brain and ability to lower core body temperature.
- Glycine amino acid may reduce heart disease risk factors by preventing the buildup of molecules associated with heart disease and increasing the body’s ability to use ammonia monoxide.
- Glycine has been shown to increase insulin response in non-diabetics. Thus suggesting that glycine supplementation may improve the impaired insulin response in type II diabetic patients.
- Studies have shown that glycine can stimulate muscle growth. Glycine is expected to improve health by protecting muscles from wasting in various wasting conditions.
- Combined with Alanine for alcoholic beverages.
- Because it can taste like shrimp and cuttlefish to a certain extent, it can be used in sauces.
- It has a certain inhibitory effect on the reproduction of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Therefore, it can be used as a preservative for surimi products, peanut butter, etc.
- It can buffer the taste of salt and vinegar. Because glycine is a zwitterion with amino and carboxyl groups, it has strong buffering properties.
- Glycine powder has a unique sweet taste, which can ease the acid and alkali taste, cover the bitter taste of saccharin added in food and enhance the sweet taste.
- Anti-oxidize effect. Adding it to cream, cheese, and margarine can extent the shelf life by 3-4 times. In order to stabilize lard in baked goods, a certain amount of glycine can be added. Added to the wheat flour used for instant noodles, it can also play a seasoning role.
- Used in pharmaceutical industry, biochemical experiment and organic synthesis.
- It is used in medicine to treat myasthenia gravis and progressive muscle atrophy.
- Treatment of gastric ester hyperlipidemia, chronic enteritis. Combined with aspirin, can help reduce its irritation to the stomach.
- Treatment of hyperprolinemia in children.
- As a nitrogen source for the production of non-essential amino acids, it is added to the mixed amino acid injection.
- It is also a raw material for the synthesis of amino acids such as threonine.
- Used as amino acid preparation, buffer of chlortetracycline and as a raw material for the synthesis of L-dopa, an anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, and as an intermediate of ethyl imidazolate.
It usually takes several weeks, at least 2 weeks, to significantly increase muscle carnosine levels.
- It can be used as a pH regulator and added to the electroplating solution.
- It is used as biochemical reagent and solvent in organic synthesis and biochemistry.
More About Glycine Amino Acid
- Solid glycine is white to off-white crystalline powder, odorless and non-toxic.
- Soluble in water, almost insoluble in ethanol or ether.
- It has both acidic and basic functional groups in the molecule.
- It can be ionized in water and has strong hydrophilicity, but it is a non-polar amino acid, soluble in polar solvents, but insoluble in non-polar solvents.
- With higher boiling point and melting point, glycine can present different molecular forms by adjusting the acidity and alkalinity of the aqueous solution.
- It is the only achiral proteoamino acid. Due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom, it can adapt to either hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments.
Glycine as a whole is a polar molecule. This is because the polarity of an amino acid is jusged based on the nature of its R group, not the entire molecule. The glycine branched chain is a hydrogen atom and it is classified as a hydrocarbon chain, which is non-polar. Similarly, although it is readily soluble in water, it is a hydrophobic amino acid. Of course, some people think that the side chain of glycine is between polar and non-polar. Its R group is only a hydrogen atom, which has little influence on the highly polar amino and carboxyl groups. However, it is generally classified as non-polar in biology.
Strecker method. Using formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia as raw materials, aminoacetonitrile is first synthesized, and then decomposed into glycine amino acid.
Bucherer method. Adding paraformaldehyde to an aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate and sodium cyanide gives an aqueous solution of hydantoin. Then directly add 30% NaOH aqueous solution and hydrolyze at 170°C for 3h. Finally, it is treated with cation exchange resin to obtain glycine powder.
Biological method. Add 0.5% (mass fraction, dry weight) of cultured Pseudomonas, Caseinosa, Alcaligenes and other genera into the glycine amine-containing matrix, and react at 30°C and pH 7.9-8.1. After 45 hours, almost all of the glycine amine was hydrolyzed to form glycine powder, and the conversion rate reached 99%.
Glycine supplementation is safe in moderation. Glycine powder is readily available and can be easily added to your favorite beverages and some foods. Collagen supplements are also an effective way to increase your glycine intake.